Fiber Optic Cables are network cables containing strands of glass fibers inside an insulated casing, designed for long distance, with very high performance data networking & telecommunications.
Compared to conventional Wired & Co-axial Cables, Fiber Optic cables provide higher bandwidth & can transmit data over longer distances, which is why they support much of the world's internet, cable television & telephone systems today.
As fibers are made of a dielectric material, they are immune to radiated & conducted interference, making optical fiber transmission secure & nearly immune to tap.
Optic fiber is small & lighter in weight, giving it an edge wherever weight is a concern. Fiber Optics is the least expensive & most reliable medium for high speed/long distance communications. Fiber Optics is the communications medium that works by sending optical signals down hair like thin strands of extremely pure glass or plastic fiber, where light is "guided" down the center of the fiber called the "core". The core is surrounded by an optical material "cladding", which traps light in the core, on the principle of "total internal reflection." The fiber is coated by a "buffer", to protect the fiber from moisture & physical damage.
The carrier of information signal is light, an electromagnetic radiation, travelling at a speed of 300,000 kms/sec, with a wavelength of around 1 μm & oscillation frequency of about 300 Hz. The typical fiber optic wavelengths are 850 nm, 1310 nm & 1550 nm; all being located in the near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, referred to as the three wavelength windows in fiber.